Environmental impact assessment study for 21 existing and proposed irrigation projects under the auspices of the Demand Study for Smallholder Irrigation Schemes in Districts bordering Lake Victoria. The Study covered an inventory of the aspects of environmental impact assessment that are likely to be caused by smallholder rice irrigation development projects along the Lake Victoria region. The study adopted a comprehensive environmental checklist recently published by the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID). The checklist is a major step forward for sustainable irrigated agriculture as it provides a systematic approach to assessing environmental impacts. The necessary mitigation measures to negate the existing and possible future negative impacts due to irrigation development were proposed in each project. However, future monitoring and evaluation of the impacts to detect the environmental changes were recommended.